Build a Team of Managers Who Support You and Their Teams

Build a Team of Managers Who Support You and Their Teams

By Dr. Dan Neundorf

Good leaders do the right things, but good managers can be relied on to do things right.  Peter Drucker’s observation is almost an aphorism in business, one that reveals the traditional top-down synergy between the leadership of an organization and the managers and team members who work to support it.

However, contemporary managers face challenges that their predecessors did not.  Changes driven by technology and global forces have brought new leadership, new work environments, and a new style of working.  “Management today,” says author John Kotter, “is less about wielding power than about coping with dependence.  More change brings more leadership, and that puts managers into a far more complex web of interaction with influential others than any organization chart can suggest.”  In coping with the need to depend on others instead of just having power over them, the behavior of managers more and more has come to resemble that required of contemporary leadership.

As an employer, you should expect a good manager today to be what author Seth Godin calls a “linchpin,” a person who combines knowledge with six other characteristics:

  1. Provides a unique interface among members of the organization
  1. Delivers unique creativity
  1. Manages situations of great complexity
  1. Leads customers
  1. Inspires staff
  1. Possess a unique talent

Steve Jobs, founder and CEO of Apple, and Bill Gates, CEO of Microsoft, for example, share those characteristics along with their staffers.  Do your people?   If not, the reason may lie in the inertia of the status quo.  Managers become entrenched in their role, compliant, afraid to challenge it—to challenge themselves– with innovative actions and solutions that could be productive for business. With an encouraging, supportive work environment, advises Godin, any manager can choose to develop the linchpin characteristics.  Managers who create a supportive work environment that engages team members can avoid employee burnout and increase productivity.

In fact, long-time human relations consultant Cori Maedel reports that one of the top five reasons employees choose to stay in their jobs rather than look elsewhere is supportive management and a good boss. “Don‘t make the mistake of assuming that employees stay solely for money,” warns Maedel. “No matter what industry you’re in, it’s vital to know what your employees think and feel about your company and about their positions.”  It’s important, she advises, that team members not feel invisible, as though no one would notice their absence on any particular day.  A good manager will keep them involved, making each one feel as though he or she is at the heart of activity and not on the periphery.

Say Christina Maslack and Michael Leiter, co-authors of a handbook on burnout:

“In today’s workplace, people and organizations are responding to the challenges of global competition, tightening budgets, and downsizing by working harder instead of smarter, resulting in the exhaustion, cynicism, and ineffectiveness characteristic of burnout.  The real solution to enabling people to effectively respond to the increase in demands will come from organizations and individuals significantly rethinking the way people work and how to effectively manage people and work.”

Employees disengage from their jobs for a variety of reasons; for example, work overload, loss of a sense of control over the situation, insufficient rewards, lack of a community feeling at work, conflict of values, unfair and unjust treatment.

The Six-Step Solution

How can managers fix burnout?  Joe Santana advises following a six-step solution, one step at a time.  The best managers, he suggests, will

  • develop a workload that’s realistic, of high value, and can be sustained.
  • involve team members in the decision-making process.
  • acknowledge and reward the contributions of individual team members.
  • create a sense of community among team members.
  • communicate to team members in meaningful terms just how valued their work is; for example, talking about how the new solar energy panels are benefitting a children’s home.
  • establish a work environment that’s honest, open, respectful, and fair.

Selecting Effective Managers

Look first for a person who is supportive of co-workers, routinely helps others to succeed, and gives credit when credit is due.  An effective manager stands up for the team without laying blame, acts as amicus curae in the court of corporate culture, is assertive in protecting the team from unreasonable pressure, and makes sure team members have all the resources necessary to complete their tasks.  Potential managers also should demonstrate a multicultural perspective and possess a range of skills that will help them lead and manage teams that are likely to be hallmarked by diversity and comprised of a diverse range of skills. Each level of management requires different tasks and management assets, in effect defining the characteristics of an effective manager.  For example, responsibilities become more complex and the depth of strategic management increases as an individual progresses from front-line manager to middle management to executive.  Generically speaking, however, KatherineVercillo proposes ten traits to look for in a potential manager:

  1. Self-motivation
  1. Skill in client or customer service
  1. Integrity and trustworthiness
  1. A team player, that middle man who works successfully with both upper management and team members
  1. Ability to resolve conflicts
  1. Knows the industry
  1. Dependability
  1. Ability to remain calm in the tough position of management
  1. Optimism
  1. Leadership skills

To the 10 traits above, make sure to add global mindset and creative personality. Kindler and Robertson analyzed employee personalities in 1994 and found that two personality traits are important for managers: creative/innovative, reflecting the ability to generate ideas and exhibit ingenuity; and conceptual, suggestive of creative managers who are intellectually curious and able to deal with abstracts and complexities.  A later personality test by Holland sought to distinguish between poor managers and effective managers.  In the Holland test, effective managers scored highest on continuous learning and sociability while poor managers scored highest on the categories even tempered, ambition, and conforming.

Management consultant Paul Lines suggests four skills that are desirable in a manager: organization skill, people skills, team-building skills, and communication skills.

Organizational Skill

The manager sees that tasks are completed by deadline, with efficiency, within the parameter of cost, and to the level of quality defined by the organization.

People Skills

A potential manager inspires team members to their highest and best performance.  Team members are comfortable working for this person and fulfilling their responsibilities within the established work environment.  The environment will be a supportive one, where team members who are under-performing or under-skilled receive coaching and training from the team manager.

Cohesive Team-Building Skills

The diverse skills of team membership are strengths that complement the overall objectives of programs and projects.  A cohesive team is a team empowered by its manager, with whom they share an active voice in decision-making.  Katzenbach and Smith in 2003 correctly defined a team as “a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they are mutually accountable.”  The key, of course, is mutual accountability, a term that applies as much to a manager as to the members of the team.  Good team managers, say the duo, “take full responsibility for the mistakes of their teams and do not blame or apportion blame for any erring team member.”

Richard Hackman of the Center for Public Leadership warns that “Our tendency [is] to assign to the leader [or manager] credit or blame for successes or failures that actually are team outcomes.”   Hackman call it the “leader attribution error,” one that applies to both positive and negative team performance metrics.  However, says Hackman, since the tendency is for people to apply responsibility—and therefore affix blame– to things they can see, team members themselves often are vulnerable.  Although organizations may turn to management training programs designed to facilitate team performance, Hackman seeks an alternative.  In a leader-centered work environment, he asks, “Are people self-motivated to perform well, or do they rely on rewards or punishments administered by others, such as bosses?”  Three issues come into play, says Hackman, who believes that “the leader-centric model may be a fundamentally flawed way of thinking about the leadership of teams:”

  • How high is internal work motivation?
  • How high is general satisfaction?
  • How high is satisfaction with growth opportunities?

In his alternative, the behavior of team members shapes the style of team managers and thus significantly affects team performance.

“If team members are behaving cooperatively and competently, leaders tend to operate more participatively and democratically, but if members are uncooperative or seemingly incompetent, leaders tilt toward a more unilateral, directive style.”

Nevertheless, the above alternative, like the more traditional leader-to-group-to-performance outcomes, is still a cause-and-effect model.  Hackman suggests that a healthier group leadership should address not the causes of team behavior and performance but the conditions under which teams are formed and develop over time.  Rethinking the conditions under which teams form and operate is a radical departure from causes.  His alternative is to “identify the small number of conditions that, when present, increase the likelihood that a [team] will naturally evolve into an ever-more competent performing unit.”  Hackman likens it to a plane being stabilized on approach to landing.

Four conditions are imperative, says Hackman:

  • “Create a real team rather than a team in name only, and make sure that the team has reasonable stability over time. Even carefully selected and competently trained team managers can make little constructive difference if they have little latitude to act.
  • Provide the team with a compelling direction for its work. That means setting a clear, reachable yet challenging performance target.
  • Make sure that the team has an enabling design, one that encourages competent teamwork and provides ready access to the resources and contextual supports members need to carry out their collective work.
  • Make available expert coaching that can help team members take good advantage of their favorable performance circumstances.”

Only when these conditions are present in an organization can managers and their teams work to their productive best.

Leadership Activity:

Are those conditions present in your organization?  Schedule time this week to sit down with current team managers for an assessment.  Do the teams have an enabling design, a compelling direction?  Do team managers coach and train team members or supply such support through outside consultants?  Do your teams have the latitude to take appropriate actions?  Ask questions, encourage feedback.  Make sure the time spent together is productive by establishing an honest, open forum for dialogue.

Essential Characteristics of a Team

Some teams exist to provide advice and involvement to managers; others are work teams, developing and handling projects; still others are action-oriented, such as sports teams.  In a sense, one size won’t fit all, and both manager and team members should be selected carefully for those particular characteristics that will maximize a particular team’s mission.  In addition, research reveals that the two essential characteristics of a team—loyalty to team members and identification within the group– are lasting patterns that, according to researcher Connie Gersick, “can appear as early as the first few seconds of a group’s life.”  Building on Gersick’s research, the U.S. National Defense University suggests that team managers immediately create the conditions that will foster team identity and loyalty; for example, trust, open communication, and camaraderie:

“Team efforts are the synthesis of two processes: One part interpersonal (among team members and groups external to the team) and the other part, task directed.  Consequently, leaders’ [and managers’] creation of conditions that facilitate positive interpersonal processes will also facilitate the task-directed decision-making process.

In simpler terms, teams can provide an environment “that celebrates and harnesses difference yet also helps [team members] see what connects them,” say Juanita Brown and David Isaacs, co-authors of The World Café.   “The real meaning of empowerment,” they add, “is power generated from the ground up by seeing new connections and building peer-to-peer relationships across the boundaries that so often divide us.”  In addition, it’s not enough to select some people, call them a team, and tell them to work together.  Hackman advises that “action must be taken to establish a team’s boundaries, to define the task as one for which members are collectively responsible and accountable, and to give members the authority to manage both their internal processes and the team’s relations with…clients and co-workers.”  How does team management encourage collective action and responsibility?  The National Defense University suggests three strategies:

  • Establish fundamental standards for individual commitment, motivation, and self-esteem.
  • Establish team norms that make members accountable for their performance.
  • Require teams to keep monitoring their performance against team goals and to make adjustments in team processes if necessary.

Loyalty to the Organization and Identification with Organizational Objectives

            Without team loyalty and solid identification with the organization’s objectives, the team is a fractional collection of individual self-interests.  How can team mangers address this challenge?  Advises the National Defense University, the way to develop loyalty and allegiance is by translating organizational ideologies into action every day.  “If you want to insure team success in your organization,” advises the University, “you have to think hard about the ways you can reinforce or transform your organizational culture so that it communicates an ideology of partnership and collective gain to employees.”  In pursuing solutions to problems, managers must communicate to team members in real terms the strategic frame of reference used by top leadership.  To accomplish this, both leadership and team management must apply three strategies:

  1. “Visibly and verbally reward productivity and innovation.
  1. Downplay status differences between management and non-management employees.
  1. Consistently demonstrate how organizational membership is instrumental to employees achieving their own goals.”

Translated into Action

Headquartered in Tucson, Arizona, Southwest Airlines is an industry success story.  As reported by Roger Hallowell, the airline’s unique focus on creating value for employees not only raised profits during the early 1990s by its value-oriented strategies but won the industry’s top marks for customer satisfaction.  According to Hallowell, “the cornerstone of Southwest’s employee-relations approach represents concern and respect for the individual, as well as the consensus creation of the environment that encourages all employees to have fun on the job.”  One of Southwest’s core values involves the way people treat each other, says Hallowell—with respect for individuality and a genuine caring for others, as though the airlines itself were a large family.  Adds the National Defense University: “The bottom line is that if you want to insure team success in your organization, you have to think hard about the ways you can reinforce or transform your organizational culture so that it communicates an ideology of partnership and collective gain to employees.”

Team-Building Activities Emphasize Collaboration, Camaraderie

            Given the workforce cutbacks in these tough economic times, managers need to be honest and open with their teams.  Team-building activities and simulations can validate team member concerns and re-instill confidence in the future of the organization and the security of their own jobs.  Pat Olsen in the Harvard Business Review offers some team-building tips:

  • Present real-world problems, not only with team-building activities for managers but with team members themselves. Hopefully, this exercise will allow employees to build later on what they have learned.  In addition, activities that teach and encourage teams to work well together can have positive results on another front: Team members should be better able to identify growth opportunities and apply them in their work.
  • Choose activities that offer team members different roles to choose from.
  • Choose activities that fit with your corporate culture. Don’t be afraid to use elements of those activities in the team’s day-to-day work.  For example, Olsen cites a team-building activity at General Electric that was integrated into a product-development group’s regular process:  As related to Olsen by Ontario entrepreneur  Peter Emmenegger, a former GE employee, “The group, which produced high-voltage motor control relays at a manufacturing facility, met first thing every morning.  Their manager introduced the latest metrics and communicated the business needs.  The employees then discussed the bottlenecks and figured out how they could meet the goals.  It was almost like we had our own board of directors.  And we took ownership of the goals.”

Leadership Activity:

Do you have a supportive corporate culture?  Are your managers supportive?  Can you answer “yes” to at least 16 of these questions provided by Susan Seitel, one of the founders of the Alliance for Work-Life Progress?

  1. “Is there a concerted effort to help employees manage their personal responsibilities as well as their work?_____
  1. Do employees have a sense of “corporate family?”_____
  1. Are managers open to redesigning jobs to make them more suitable for flexible work arrangements?_____
  1. Are efforts made to eliminate low-value or duplicate work?_____
  1. Are attempts made to make jobs interesting and fulfilling?_____
  1. Are salaries competitive for the industry?_____
  1. Are benefits designed to meet life-cycle needs?_____
  1. Do employees have a sense of challenge at work?_____
  1. Are managers and workers alike encouraged to challenge current practices without fear of reprisal?_____
  1. Is collaborative brainstorming a common practice?_____
  1. Do employees feel trusted?_____
  1. Are employees treated with respect?_____
  1. Do employees enjoy control and a good degree of autonomy over their work and daily routines?_____
  1. Do employees believe that senior management cares about their well-being?_____
  1. Is the organization socially responsible?_____
  1. Do employees have a sense of equality and diversity?_____
  1. Do employees have a sense of shared purpose and are they empowered to achieve goals?_____
  1. Do friendships flourish among coworkers?”_____

If you answered “yes” to 16 or more of these questions, you’re a supportive leader who knows what to look for in building a team of supportive managers.  However, if you answered “yes” to 15 questions or less, there is still much room for personal growth.

Select your managers with certain priorities in mind.

  • First is their willingness to delegate, to share ideas, suggestions, and the work load with team members in order to increase productivity and enhance the possibilities for success.
  • A manager must allocate team responsibilities by first assessing individual skills and experience before matching each individual to certain tasks. Will a particular manager-candidate be a good motivator?  There’s a psychology to motivation, and effective managers realize they must alter their style according to the differing needs of people with whom they’ll be working; for example, some team members may be self-motivated, others will need input and a supervisory “push.”  The theory of supportive relationships developed by Rensis Likert is a motivating management style likely to produce satisfying results.  The theory is simple.  Says Victor Broom, an authority of the psychological analysis of behavior in organizations: “People are more likely to carry out decisions if they have a participatory role in the process of making them. The theory supports the idea that the key to positive interaction consists of maintaining an individual’s self worth and importance.”  In other words, by working toward organizational objectives, team members are supporting their personal goals.
  • Managers should be skilled at team development, advises the web site MindTools.com, a forum for team management training. Team members will have different skills and abilities, may be from different culture groups and at a distance, and may be at different stages on their career path, needing more or less help, understanding, coaching, and training.  After all, said MindTools, a manager’s purpose is “to help people become better at what they do.”  Since some team members may be anxious in the new work slot and unused to a particular manager’s style, it’s essential that they’re encouraged to give regular feedback.
  • Managers must regularly communicate with team members. Asking questions and active listening are essential to effective communication.  Do your current managers know how to run effective team meetings?  Have you provided them with the appropriate coaching and training?
  • Managers must successfully and regularly communicate with people outside the team, including those to whom he or she reports. Depending on the nature of the teams, these also could include other teams, vendors, shareholders, clients, and suppliers.

Communication skills

At Greenwood, Inc., a BASF plant in North Carolina that manufactures nylon resin chips for the plastics and textiles industries, the focus is on meeting the needs of employees and treating them fairly as “real” people.  A key factor in employee retention at Greenwood is its open-door communications policy.   Greenwood management realizes that there is more than one way to communicate in the workplace—visual, vocal, spatial, tactile– and all of them come into play. Often, what has not been said is more powerful than an actual written or verbal message perceived in corporate culture as being the “right” or “correct” one.  Managers must not only be key communicators but good listeners as well.  An effective manager perceives communication as a two-way process and establishes a variety of channels for open, honest, communication with team members.  This must be a feedback-favorable environment, one that allows the manager to ask questions, gives team members a voice stronger than mere responses, and provides a strategic method for identifying communication miscues.  Team meetings are not only fruitful avenues of communication but value-laden as well, say Brown and Isaacs.  Such meetings

  • “Allow knowledge sharing, stimulation of innovative thinking, building community, and exploring possibilities.
  • Provide opportunity for in-depth explorations of key challenges and opportunities.
  • Engage new faces in authentic conversation.
  • Deepen the ownership of team outcomes.
  • Create meaningful interactions among team participants.”

Of course, it’s also essential that communication channels between managers and supervisors be open and feedback-friendly.

Managing Discipline

While it may seem kiddie-catering, your managers must know how to deal effectively with problems that can impact overall team performance.  Assertiveness should again come into play when problems arise that must be quickly if quietly deal with.  Overactive egos, negativity, failure to meet deadlines or to carry one’s own weight—all these will influence productivity.  Managers who hesitate to take action should ask themselves these questions suggested by MindTools.com, the management training web site:

  • Does the issue affect the quality of the employee’s deliverable to team or client?
  • Does the issue adversely impact the cohesiveness of the team?
  • Does the issue unnecessarily undermine the interests of other individuals on the team?

Disciplining the Manager

Poor interpersonal and communication skills are the primary reasons for management failure.  Business writer Andrew Bailey lists the visible symptoms of a bad manager:

  • “Always feuds or fights with someone in the organization
  • Has a reputation for being aloof, cold, arrogant, and insensitive
  • Avoids direct communication
  • Sends bad news via e-mail or text message
  • Exhibits a hostile attitude toward others
  • Has either a love or a hate relationship with team members
  • Fails to treat team members with respect
  • Says one thing but does another
  • Goes back on his or her word
  • Fails to discipline team members fairly, choosing favorites from a team
  • Makes decisions with self-interest, rather than team-interests, in mind
  • Regularly humiliates others publically
  • Fails to stick up for team members if mistakes are made
  • Looks more at the number of hours a team member puts in rather than at the quality of work presented
  • Shows one face to staff and another to upper management
  • Avoids blame by delegating tasks to staff members just in case of failure
  • Fails to leave home issues at home
  • Fails to explain reasons for decisions
  • Fails to give feedback on performance

To the above symptoms, make sure to add “fails to be patient with new staffers.”

Activities To Remedy Management Failure

The pressures of rapid change have have altered the face of business and placed increased demands on managers for high performance.  As a result, teamwork among managers has become even more essential.  Like the members of their teams, managers themselves need support and encouragement from higher levels to keep them on track.  Activities, training, and mentoring can help.  While the jury is still out on whether computer-simulated “events” are effective in changing attitudes and behaviors, experience has shown that group activities designed specifically for managers can improve productivity, efficiency, motivation, and morale. An example is the Life Highlights exercise provided by Chris Wolski of Demand Media:

“Pair up managers and have them consider and explain to their partner the best experience/even of their life, the reasons why they consider it the best experience and any lasting lessons/effects they have taken from it.  Bring the group together and have each participant explain his partner’s best life moment.  This is a quick and easy way for managers to learn about the most important things in their teammates’ lives, the knowledge of which will often bring them closer, and will encourage them to support and encourage one another.”

Developing Your Managers

Effective managers add value to an organization.  How can you develop that?   Here are a number of suggestions provided by Wendy Leebov, author of Essentials for Great Personal Leadership:

  • First and foremost, coach your managers to success.
  • Act like a role model, demonstrating the desired competencies.
  • Empower your managers by sharing “the big picture” with them and delegating responsibilities
  • Avoid denunciatory behavior and instead encourage risk-taking, reflection, evaluation.
  • In conversations, engage your managers as individuals with whom you can share your own frustrations. Give constructive feedback.  Be direct: Don’t shy away from any resistance you encounter; explain how that impedes team productivity.
  • Define active learning as a core competency of management and one expected of managers. Provide different ways of learning for the different learning styles of managers; for instance, peer presentations, simulations, mentors, buddies.  Understand that learning takes time.

Managing Virtual Teams: A New Mindset

The contemporary workplace is all about collaboration and managing relationships.  While virtual teams face the challenges of distance and geography, still in all, teams in place and those at a distance still face the same kind of issues.  Lisa Kimball, keynote speaker at a Team Strategies Conference in Toronto, encapsulates them: “How do we effectively support the collaborative work of teams?  How do we expand our available tools to create new dynamics aligned with the best thinking about supporting collaborative work?”  Responding to those questions requires a new management mindset and a new management style, one requiring managers to understand team dynamics and the process of collaboration.

A primary reason for setting up virtual teams in an organization is to capitalize on change.  Says Lisa Kimball: “Today’s organization interested in tomorrow’s success will run on its ability to create and use knowledge, its ability to learn.”  In order to positively impact change, leadership and management must design communication environments that not only specifically support virtual teams but nurture learning and decision-making and aren’t bounded by traditional reporting structures.  People get to pick and choose with whom they need to communicate.  The team manager’s job is quite simply to manage the team, complete with goals, mission statement, and all the resources necessary for productivity.  Managers must teach participants how to work like a team in virtual space, and, says Lisa Kimball “must create ways to make the working of the virtual team visible to itself.”  With electronic communication available to managers and team members 24/7, the challenge for management becomes how to use it effectively.

Lisa Kimball cites this success story:

“In the Northern Region of the Animal Plant Health Inspection Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, managers from nineteen states served by thirteen area offices use a private web-conference to stay informed on applicable laws, regulations, and guidelines {directives, memorandums, etc.).  Among the advantages they’ve found to use this technology: There is easy accessibility nationwide, decisions made are more readily accepted, team building is evident even though all participants are widely scattered, frequent meetings and/or teleconferences are no longer needed, and more time is freed up for local problems and/or issues.  Participatory quality management becomes a reality.  One of the unanticipated benefits to the agency was a change in the communication patterns among regions where regional teams had previously communicated only with headquarters, and teams never communicated with each other across the region.”

Mindsets Do Matter.

Organizational leadership in the 21st Century should take an active, even a proactive, role in developing management teams.  Revising leadership strategies to partner with managers rather than to control them can establish a solid foundation for continued growth, high performance, and productivity.

Books, Articles, and Websites for Your Reference

Bailey, A. (2009, November 29). Is it bad management to have bad managers? SelfGrowth.com ezine article. Retrieved from http://www.abettermanagingtip.com/2009/11/

Ibid. (2009, November 18). Are you labeled as a bad manager? SelfGrowth.com ezine article. Retrieved from http://www.abettermanagingtip.com/2009/11/18/are-you-labeled-as-a-bad-manager/

BASF (n.d.). Increased involvement meant better production and higher caliber service. Enka, NC: Greenwood.

Brown, J., & Isaacs, D. (2005). The world café: Shaping our futures through conversations that matter. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.

Godin, S. (2010). Linchpin: Are You Indispensable? New York, NY: Penguin Group USA.

Hackman, J. R. (2005).  Rethinking leadership, or team leaders are not music directors. In Messick, D. M., & Kramer, R. M., 2005. The psychology of leadership: New perspectives and research. Mahweh, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Ibid. (2002). Leading teams: Setting the stage for great performances. Boston, MA:  Harvard Business School Press.

Hallowell, R. (1996, Winter). Southwest Airlines: A case study of linking employee needs satisfaction and organizational capabilities and competitive advantage. Human Resource Management, (35), 4, 513-534.

Harris, C. L. (n.d.). Characteristics of effective managers. Retrieved from www.pyramidodi.com/papers/managers.pdf

Holland, J. L. (1998). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments. 3d ed. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Katzenbach, J. R., &  Smith, D. (1992). The wisdom of teams: Creating the high-performance organization. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Kimball, L. (1997). Managing virtual teams.  Speech presented at Team Strategies Conference, Toronto, Canada.

Kinder, A., & Robertson, I T. (1994). Do you have the personality to become a leader? Leadership & Organization Development Journal, (15)1, 3-13.

Kotter, J. P. (1999). John P. Kotter on what leaders really do. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Leebov, W. (2008). Wendy Leebov’s Essentials for Great Personal Leadership: No-nonsense solutions with gratifying results. Chicago, IL: American Hospital Association.

Likert, R. (1967). The human organization: Its management and value. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Lines, P. (2006, June 28). Qualities of a successful manager. Retrieved from http://www.helium.com/items/63890-qualities-of-a-successful-manager

Maedel, C. (2010, October 14). The REAL top 5 reasons employees choose to stay. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?The –REAL-Top-5-Reasons-Employees-Choose-to-Stay&id=5207134

Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (1997). The truth about burnout: How organizations cause personal stress and what to do about it. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Mesick, D.M., & Kramer, R. M. (2005). The psychology of leadership: New perspectives and research. Mahweh, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Mind Tools (2011). Team management skills: The core skills needed to manage your team. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMM_92.htm

National Defense University (2011). Strategic leadership and decision making. Part three: Teams and decision making in the strategic environment, 10, Creating and managing teams.  Retrieved from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/strat-ldr-dm/pt3ch10.html

Olsen, P. (2009, March 25). Team-building exercises for tough times. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from http://blogs.hbr.org/hmu/2009/03/teambuilding-exercises-for-tou-html

Santana, J. (2003, July 14). Creating supportive, engaging work environment helps fight employee burnout. Retrieved from http://www.techrepublic.com/article/creating-supportive-engaging-work-environment-help

Seitel, S. (2003). How supportive is your corporate culture? Retrieved from http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/visio-help/how-supportive-is-your-corporate-culture-HA

Vercillo, K. (2011, April 10). 10 good traits and characteristics of a successful manager. Retrieved from http://hubpages.com/hub/10-Traits-of-a-Successful-Manager

Vroom, V. (2010). Part I: Theories of motivation. American Jewish University. Retrieved from http://www.ajula.edu/Content/ContentUnit.asp?CID=1594&u=5512&t=0

Wolski, C. (2011). Management team building exercises. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/management-team-building-exercises-1981.html