Building Trust on Your Team


Building Trust on Your Team

By Dr. Dan Neundorf

“For the first time,” reports the 2011 Edelman Trust Barometer, “trust and transparency rank as important to corporate reputation as the quality of products and services.”  There’s a reason.  In their book The Speed of Trust, Stephen Covey and Robert Merrill explain it simply and succinctly: “High-trust organizations outperform low-trust organizations.”  If yours is a high-trust company—emerging markets usually are; established North American markets value it less; Canadian NGOs rank highest–your responsibility is to stay on the trust track and continue to operate in a transparent fashion.  If yours is a low-trust company, you can begin today to build trust and transparency in your team.  This is a balancing act: Enough trust, and you can overcome fear, anxiety, suspicion, and skepticism.  Too much transparency, and you weaken your position to make competitive leadership decisions.

“One of the most uncomplicated ways of seeding trust,” suggests Harvard management consultant Vineet Nayar, “is by stretching the envelope of transparency.”  Deloitte’s 2010 survey of trust and ethics in the American workplace revealed that 48 percent of employees who plan to look for a new job when the economy improves will do so because they’ve lost trust in their employer.  Another 46 percent cite as a reason the lack of transparent communication from the organization’s leadership.  These results of Deloitte’s fourth annual workplace survey —the last one dealt with transparency—are making North American business leaders question their retention strategies.  Particularly, they now question the extent to which they’ve let trust and transparency fall by the wayside in a panic to squeeze out profits in a downside economy.

 Trust is Empowering

Why is trust so critical to business?  “Trust is what drives profit margin and share price,” explains Terry Light, CEO of the Stamford, CT, brand consultancy Arcature. “It’s what consumers are looking for and what they share with one another.”  In the workplace itself, trust makes effective and productive working relationships possible, say Beckton, Wysocki, and Kepner. The three suggest that a leader needs trust in order for team members to

  • cooperate as a group.
  • feel able to rely on another person.
  • take thoughtful risks.
  • experience believable communication.

In other words, trust is the necessary glue for building a successful team.  Cultivating it takes work: Trust can’t be instilled automatically in your team members. But when trust rules, credibility reigns. At that point, the promise has come to fruition: You’ve built a successful teamwork culture where “ego” is absent. Your team makes decisions collaboratively and shares information, suggestions, opinions, even negative outlooks.  Team members aren’t afraid to speak up, but they do so with good nature. Why?  Because trust has empowered them.  Susan Heathfield offers several effective ways to manage your team:

  • Coach your team to function as a unit. Reward them for each success, preferably in public acknowledgment.
  • Coach your team in the methods of effective teamwork prior to starting that first project. That way, team time will be project-defined time.
  • Make sure every team member feels involved and appreciated.
  • Build fun and shared experiences into the team agenda. You want team members to know each other in a personal way. Ice breakers and group activities, says Heathfield, “will promote interaction and camaraderie.”  (You can find group activities at the end of this book.)

Together we stand, divided we fall is more than a cliché in business.  “The way to build successful teams,” says Nayar in the Harvard Business Review “is by trusting each other’s abilities, actions and intent.”  Transparency and trust are filtered through your team members.  If trust doesn’t exist on your team, you need to establish clear goals and strategies for achieving it.  It starts with you.  “Your honesty, transparency, and trustworthiness, not your status or professional credentials, become your authority,” says Mike Cardaronella.

Check Up On Trust

It’s time to check in and check up on the health of your team.  Make sure to write out your responses: You’ll need them for comparison at the end of this book.

  • Do team members exhibit enough trust to voluntarily speak up in meetings rather than talk “out of school?”
  • Do you encourage them to offer suggestions, opinions, evaluations?
  • Do they seem to agree in meeting but afterward hold private, whispered conversations?
  • Do team members have to find out vital information from a source other than you?
  • Do team members trust each other’s abilities?
  • Do they “tell on each other?”
  • Are team members going behind your back to complain about your leadership? About changes that alter the team status quo?
  • Are you providing your team with the whole story? Remember that team members can quickly sniff our hidden agendas. Be transparent. Share unknowns and fears; address the unknowns if you can.

Where openness is denied in the workplace, fear and distrust will breed.  That’s what happened in the March 2011 breakdown of NFL labor talks.  Research shows that employees give higher marks for trust to companies they feel value transparency.  How do your team members perceive the position of your company on trust and transparency?  The issue isn’t all that simple.  Trust is tied to transparency is tied to accountability.  And you can’t build accountability and commitment with the members of your team if they don’t trust you.   To do things right, says Katie Delahaye Paine, your organization should

  • articulate ethical principles.
  • create the type of transparency that suits company operations now and in the future.
  • establish a way to formally measure trust.

What You Do, How You Do It

Researcher Brad Rawlins suggests that what you do (the right thing) may be more impactful to the bottom line than how you do it (doing it right).  Employees report that

  • a leader of integrity and good will is more important than a competent one for building overall trust.
  • a measure of leader integrity is his or her willingness to share information.
  • the extent to which they’ll participate and be held accountable in doing it is tied to their perception of good will.

During World War II, The general manager of a corporate underwear manufacturing plant was offered a chance on the side to make a killing in the scarce rubber market.  It was the opportunity of a lifetime: Rubber was a vital commodity– a strategic, critical material used in the production of war materiel, uniforms, and tires for military vehicles, but also in the manufacture of underwear.  The general manager refused to take advantage of the war effort and referred the offer to corporate headquarters.  “Trust,” says Brian Tracy, “is built on integrity.”  The general manager exemplified it.

The Two C’s

“Mutual trust is the lubrication that makes it possible for an organization to work,” says Warren Bennis, writing in the Leader to Leader Journal.  Trust begins with the two C’s: candor and credibility.  “Without candor,” says Bennis, “there can be no trust. Exemplary leaders remove the organizational barriers—and the fear—that cause people to keep bad news from the boss.”  But the boss can do little unless a climate of candor is present that allows problems to be aired and discussed.  “When we are truthful about our shortcomings, or acknowledge that we do not have all the answers,” adds Bennis, “we earn the understanding and respect of others.”  Like candor, credibility–the second C– can be learned.  Your personal reputation is a direct reflection of your credibility, says Stephen Covey, “and it precedes you in any interactions or negotiations you might have.  When a leader’s credibility and reputation are high,” he continues, “it enables a person to establish trust fast—speed goes up, cost goes down.”

Reprinted below are the 10 steps to establishing credibility that I listed in my first book:

  1. Be approachable. The members of your team should voluntarily come to your for advice and suggestions.
  2. Be able to answer questions from team members even if you have to elsewhere for the answers.
  3. Regularly acknowledge the accomplishments of others.
  4. Solicit input and give feedback, always listening and thinking before responding.
  5. Empower team members to take action without being prodded.
  6. Be consistent and realistic in your expectations of others.
  7. Be the person who gets things done. How do you know? If co-workers and those to whom you report acknowledge your efforts and have begun to consult you for suggestions.
  8. Submit regularly oral and written reports and updates to those to whom you report without being asked. It is essential to keep them in the loop about your team’s progress.  They, too, must report on that progress to those higher up in the corporate structure.
  9. Create an open atmosphere of trust and transparency that allows team members to speak up during meetings to offer different scenarios and solutions. Your people now know they are valued members of the team.
  10. Encourage initiative so that team members are able to work independently of you, the team leader.

 Self-Evaluation Exercise

Hard as it may be, it’s time to take your credibility temperature.  Turn each of the 10 steps above into a question.  Answer each question honestly.  Then add up the number of positive responses.  Are you credible? If you scored 8 out of 10 positive responses or better, your temperature is in the normal range and you’re a credible leader.  Scores below 8 mean you have more work to do.

Good-Leader Behaviors

Stephen Covey has isolated 13 behaviors characteristic of good leaders. “When you adopt these ways of behaving,” Covey says, “it’s like making deposits into a ‘trust account’ of another party.”  Each of the 13 behaviors keys off the other; for example, you can show loyalty, but loyalty taken to the extreme won’t right a wrong.

  1. Talk straight
  2. Demonstrate respect
  3. Create transparency
  4. Right wrongs
  5. Show loyalty
  6. Deliver results
  7. Get better
  8. Confront reality
  9. Clarify expectation
  10. Practice accountability
  11. Listen first
  12. Keep commitments
  13. Extend trust


The Dr. Neundorf Guide to Ultimate Trust

Nothing is more important to business and not-for-profit organizations than building trust.  Because trust can mean many things to different people, achieving it in your team will require work.  Examine the Ultimate Trust Model below.


Is your team ready for the 360 degrees of unguarded interaction?  Are you?  Trust begins with you, the team leader.  It’s accomplished gradually, in steps, each step shown in the model above as 90 degrees of the circle.  In the first step, you should be willing to share information about yourself and to encourage others to do the same.  In other words, make sure to “walk the talk.”  In the second step– are you comfortable being open?  Many people are not.  Trust, after all, equals vulnerability equals a willingness to share experiences over time and to explore your fears and failures in open forum.  With completion of the second step, the team is halfway there.  Getting your team to commit to a unified team vision—the third step– requires all team members to be unified in purpose and to pull their weight equally.  As team leader, you have a vision for the team.  But is the vision embraced by all team members?  Do some still have reservations?  It will help to talk about those doubts and reservations openly.  By the time you’ve traversed the fourth step with your team, team members are willing to trust you and each other.  You’re mutually perceived as competent and share the same intention.  This noticeable willingness to trust each other means that your team has come full circle and is ready for unguarded interaction.

A Pyramid of Dysfunctions

Employees who are otherwise well-meaning can unknowingly fall prey to what consultant Patrick Lencioni refers to as the “five dysfunctions of a team.”  Imagine a pyramid.  At its base is an absence of trust.  Comments Lencioni: “Team members who are not genuinely open with one another about their mistakes and weaknesses make it impossihle to build a foundation for trust.”

This failure to build trust fosters fear of conflict. Team members can’t engage in “a passionate debate of ideas… and instead resort to veiled discussions and guarded comments,” says Lencioni.

The fear of conflict now breeds a lack of commitment.  Team members who can’t air opinions openly will rarely “buy in and commit to decisions, though they may feign agreement during meetings,” Lencioni says.

A lack of commitment, of course, leads team members to avoid accountability, the fourth dysfunction.  Without a buy-in, they usually won’t bother to call a spade a spade when they see other team members exhibiting behaviors that are counterproductive to good team synergy.

A team member who doesn’t hold teammates accountable for poor performance usually displays the fifth team dysfunction: inattention to results.  Collective team goals team fall by the wayside, pushed there by ego-driven career enhancement.

Trust starts with you, the team leader.  How well do you know your team members?  Have you chatted with them individually?  Leadership consultant Chip Scholz offers this perspective: “Trust begins with getting to know someone and what he or she really cares about.  You can’t help people to align their goals with yours if you don’t know them and what their personal goals are.”  Scholz suggests that a leader can begin building relationships of trust with team members by asking each of them seven foundation-building questions:

  1. What’s the best thing you like about your job?
  2. What’s your favorite thing?
  3. Where would you like to be in six months?
  4. Is there anything or anyone standing in the way of achieving your goals?
  5. What would you want to be doing in five years? At the mid-point of your career? At the end of it?
  6. What kinds of incentives really motivate you?
  7. How can I help you achieve your goals?

Team Activity: Opening a Trust Account


Initiate an open discussion with team members about the trust behaviors that can impact team performance, using bank deposits and withdrawals as a metaphor.  After 3 to 5 minutes, post the responses to the “account” or record them on a worksheet, placing debit behaviors (withdrawals) on one side and credit behaviors (deposits) on the other.  For example, unpleasant surprises or lack of support can diminish trust on your team (withdrawals); openness about intentions or delivering on promises can enhance team trust (deposits).  Make sure team members realize that while there is a universal definition of trust, people still define it according to their background and experiences.  With the “trust account” in hand, guide the team through their individual fears that can impact performance; for example, fear about talking openly, fear of failure, fear of exposing one’s vulnerability, fear of the unknown. You’re encouraged to share your own feelings and fears with the group as well.  Through this team activity and others in the future—see suggested activities at the end of this book—you should be leading team members toward becoming united in purpose, contribution, and commitment to team vision.  Team members should perceive themselves as competent, and united in purpose, contribution, and commitment to team vision.  In other words, the team will be hallmarked by its willingness to trust.

Be Clear       

Of all the fears that employees face, fear of the unknown in this uncertain economy may be the hardest for a leader to deal with.  Clarity of communication is the antidote, says leadership coach Chip Scholz, who suggests that “the most respected and successful leaders are able to transform fear of the unknown into clear visions of whom to serve, core strengths to leverage, and actions to take.  They are able to identify the single, best vantage point from which to examine our complex roles. Only then,” says Scholz, “can we take clear, decisive action.” Are you working on clarity?  Borrowing from author Marcus Buckingham, Scholz suggests that leadership clarity can be improved by

  • Taking time to reflect: Use exercise, meditation, even travel time to sift through the clutter, define essentials, and focus on what really matters.
  • Selecting your heroes with care: What gets recognized gets repeated.
  • Practice: Use self-discipline to practicing using words, images, and stories in a way that helps employees perceive the future with clarity. Don’t be afraid of repeating yourself if it helps you lead your people through uncertainty and anxiety toward a clearly defined goal.

 Take Your Trust Temperature

Is this your team?  The following qualities of a smoothly functioning team have become questions for you to ask yourself.  Answer each with a yes, no, somewhat/not sure or don’t know.

  • Does each team meeting start with an agenda? ______
  • Does the meeting end with a clear solution or a resolution to solve a problem?______
  • Does each team meeting sufficiently challenge members and hold their interest?_____
  • Is each team member sufficiently open and willing to admit mistakes and weaknesses?__
  • Are team members friendly, sharing personal information with each other?_____
  • Does each team member know the specific objective of a project?_______
  • Does each team member know how his or her part of the project meets the overall objective?______
  • Does each team member understand what other members are working on and how each part mortices to the whole?______
  • Are team members willing to voice opinions, even if negative?_______
  • Are you, the team leader, willing to bring difficult issues to the table?______
  • Are you willing to hear other solutions to a problem, compromising when necessary?___

Give 4 to each yes answer, 1 to each no, a 3 to each somewhat/nor sure response, and a 2 to each don’t know.  Now add them up. A score of 38 to 40 indicates you’re approaching the goal line with your team. A score less than that mean you’re still at first down.

 Communication Is at the Heart of Trust-Building

“Communication is fundamental to building trust,” says Jodi Macpherson, a communications expert at Mercer, Inc., quoted in the Ivy Business Journal.  “It contributes to the creation of an environment of trust around leaders that enables them to lead effectively, engage employees, and ultimately deliver results.”  When an organization builds trust, it creates value.  Ralph Beslin, president of Beslin Communication Group, and Chitra Reddin, president of Communications Solutions, say that trust builds loyalty, increases credibility, and supports effective communication. “It gives you the benefit of the doubt in situations where you want to be heard, understood, and believed.  Communication can help create a culture in which trust can thrive.”  Unfortunately, some people haven’t heard that.  A 2003 Towers Perrin study reveals that less than half of the American employees sampled don’t believe that companies communicate honestly about their business performance.

Says David Moorcroft, senior vice-president of corporate communications at RBC Financial Group, “In trusted, high-performing companies in Canada and the United States, the CEO and senior managers are communication champions who lead by example and sustain an open communications culture.”  Moorcroft also advises that managers always provide feedback opportunities.  “Communication can’t be left to chance,” he says, stressing that managers must communicate with sincerity, honesty, and regularity both internally and externally, formally and informally.

“I want to hear from people,” says the Domino’s Pizza manager in a TV advertisement.  “That’s the way we run this company.”  Does this apply to your group?  Ask yourself these questions to assess your communication skill:

  • Do I champion open communication among team members and myself?
  • Do I demonstrate willingness to act on feedback from team members?
  • Do I give feedback regularly to team members?
  • Do they act on it?

 Build Trust Cross-Culturally

Whether your team is present or virtual, if your group is ethnically diverse—and the majority are– you’ll need to build effective cross-cultural trust.  Speakers from different cultures may all speak the same language, but cultural perspectives differ, and shared words do not guarantee shared meanings.  Miscues are likely. As a leader of a diverse group, you need to build trust and understanding in the team.  “Creating people alignment is crucial to your business success,” advises Leadershipwatch. “You can boost corporate success by creating leadership alignment based on the reconciliation of cross-cultural differences.”  Here are several suggestions:

  • Don’t wait for a team excuse. Actively engage now with people from different culture groups and establish a relationship network for yourself.  That way, you’ll serve as an example to team members: that avoiding what you don’t understand (the fear factor) doesn’t breed honest, open, healthy relationships.
  • Welcome diversity without reservation. Diversity offers potential for greater team creativity and productivity by combining the strengths of different cultural perspectives.
  • Establish a learning curve for yourself and team members. You want to go beyond recognizing, acknowledging, and understanding the cultural differences that exist among team members. You want to try to understand the meaning and origin of these cultural differences, and to learn from it.
  • Stimulate mutual trust and commitment by holding open discussions among team members, advises Leadershipwatch. Open forums are gems: Everyone is allowed to be vulnerable and to acknowledge mistakes and message miscues.   Remember: Failure to actively clarify misunderstandings quickly can be highly destructive of team synergy.
  • Remind team members that regardless of cultural background, they all share a common goal and must work together to achieve it. Only through mutual trust can that goal be achieved.
  • Don’t focus on getting agreement in team discussions.  Raoul and Dusanka, for example, come from different cultures and have different perspectives.  To get them to share your viewpoint is counterproductive and a waste of team time.  Instead, advises Leadershipwatch, focus on strengthening mutual understanding.  Ask yourself if you can live with the team decision, even if you don’t share the prevailing viewpoint.

Build Team Trust through Activities

Choosing the right team activities hit or miss can backfire.  First, clarify your objectives. Why would exercises be helpful?  Are you trying to address problems of trust?  Solidify the trust you already have or build on it?  Team Technology suggests that trust problems should first be identified through a Team Dynamics Assessment questionnaire such as that found on the web site  Then, integrate the activities you have chosen into an ongoing program that blends indoor and outdoor ones.  Not all of the activities should be games; for example, Team Technology suggests workplace learning lunches that cover topics relevant to team success.  When you and your team have decided which objective or objectives to target and drawn up a list of  activities to target them, make sure to evaluate your choices using questions such as these suggested by Team Technology:

  1. Will the activity achieve the desired change?
  2. Will all team members agree to participate?
  3. Will time and budget permit the exercise, and have you the appropriate place to stage it?
  4. Will physical risk be involved? (Remember to consider insurance and liability issues.)
  5. Will the activity expose team members to issues of fear, lack of experience, incompetence, anger, humiliation?
  6. Will the exercise build more trust and more openness? Or does it require a greater degree of trust at the start in order to be effective?
  7. Should the task not produce the desired result, how do you plan to handle it?

Make sure to evaluate the results of each team activity completed.

Useful when forming a new team, the following trust-building activity is provided by leadership coach Bill Gjetson on the web site :

“The facilitator starts by explaining that one way to start building trust is to enable group members to share their own personal thoughts and feelings about what they find difficult to talk about in a group setting.  In order to initiate this process, the first step is to ask each member to complete a questionnaire regarding how much risk they would feel in each of the following situations:

  • Asking help from others in addressing a work-based problem
  • Asking for feedback from group members regarding something I have done
  • Making a statement that might anger someone else in the group
  • Expressing a difference of opinion on a conflict I have with another group member
  • Giving another member critical feedback
  • Being the center of attention of the group
  • Expressing confusion or uncertainty in front of other group members
  • Expressing dissatisfaction with the group leader
  • Admitting I was wrong about something I said or did
  • Admitting to the group I was wrong about an idea I had or an initiative I promoted

Participants rate their responses on a three-point “risk” scale (1=Low Risk, 2= Some Risk, 3=High Risk). When they have completed the questionnaire, they are paired up and process their findings with their partner—how they rated themselves, their reasoning, what they found out about themselves, what they would like to change.  The facilitator then reconvenes the full group and asks each pair to report on their findings.  The full group is then asked, based on the reports, what steps need to be taken in future meetings to encourage and sustain an on-going open dialogue.”

The Willow in the Wind activity, found in Part 2 of Building Teamwork, is well-suited for team members who have been working together for some time:

“One participant must volunteer or be chosen to be the “willow.”  The willow must stand in the middle of a group with eyes closed, feet together, and body upright.  He or she will perform a series of “trust leans” against the other participants, whose job is to hold up the willow and pass the willow around without allowing the person to fall or feel frightened as if going to fall.  Before beginning, the instructor should discuss “spotting” techniques to all participants.  Those who are not the willow must have one foot in front of the other, have their arms outstretched, elbows locked, and fingers loose, as well as be ready and alert.  This will insure that they will successfully pass the willow around without any troubles.  Various coworkers can take turns being the willow.  This technique helps co-workers establish and build trust with each other in an open, fun environment.”

Activities that support Dr. Neundorf’s Ultimate Trust Model

  1. Talk the Talk: In a team meeting have a team member share a success story about a recent project or deliverable. Have this person choose the next team member to share his or her success story.
  1. b) Address Unknowns and Fears: At the launch of a project have the team conduct a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) on critical success factors for the project. After the exercise has been completed, ask the team about fears and unknowns regarding weaknesses and threats. Conduct an open discussion where all team members can comment on fears and address unknowns. End the meeting on a positive note.
  2. c) Commit to Team Vision: Brainstorm on how all current projects support the team vision. If the team feels there are gaps between a project and team vision, continue brainstorming on elements that align.
  3. d) Willingness to Trust: Individually have team members partner to ask each other questions about perceptions of intentions and/or competence. For example:
  4. i) What is an area of development for me?
  5. ii) When in the last year have you questioned my judgment?

iii) How can I become a better team member?

  1. iv) Do you trust me, why?
  2. v) How do you like to receive feedback?

At the completion of the exercise, team members can prepare an individual action plan for trust building.

Books, Articles, and Websites for Your Reference

Becton, C., Wysocki, A., &  Kepner, K. (2002, June). Building teamwork and the importance of trust in a business environment. Gainesville, FL: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

Bennis, W. G. (n.d.). Brainy Quote. Retrieved from

Beslin, R., & Reddin, C. (2004, November/December). How leaders can communicate to build trust. Ivey Business Journal, 1-4. Retrieved from

Ibid. (1999, Spring). The leadership advantage. Leader to Leader Journal,12.

Cardaronella, M. (2011, February 21). Transparency: The motivator for trust in evangelization. Retrieved from

Ciampa, D., & Watkins, M. (Hardcover, 1999; Paper, 2005). Right from the start: Taking charge in a new leadership role. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Conway, H. (2011, February 14). Edelman’s Canadian trust barometer data released today. Retrieved from

Covey, S. M. R,  & Merrill, R. (2006). The speed of trust: The one thing that changes everything. Goshen, IN: Better World Books.

Falkow, S. (2010, January 27). Trust and transparency important to corporate reputation. Retrieved from

Global Environmental Management Initiative (2004, September). Transparency: A path to public trust. Retrieved from

Harbeke, M. (20010, August 6). New deloitte survey highlights connection between employee trust and retention. Retrieved from

Ibid. (2009). How the best leaders build trust. LeadershipNow. Retrieved from… (2009, September 15). Building teamwork: 10 quick and easy team-building exercises for improving planning skills and building trust (Part 2).

Lacy, P. (2011, January 27). 4 steps to build trust into sustainability. Retrieved from

Leadershipwatch—Aad Boot (2011, February 11). Cultural alignment: 4 communication traits of successful leaders. Retrieved from

Ibid. (2011, January 27). Cross-cultural leadership: How to build mutual trust? Retrieved from…

Ibid. (2010, November 2). Leading cross-cultural teams: Do you understand the cultural differences within your team? Retrieved from

Lencioni, P. (2002). The five dysfunctions of a team: A leadership fable. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Muldrow, D. F. (2010, July 26). Trust and ethics in the workplace have been battered by the recession, Deloitte’s 2010 ethics & workplace survey finds. Retrieved from

Nayar, V. (2009, January 2). Trust through transparency. Retrieved from

Paine, K. D. (2007, September). Trust and transparency go hand in hand. Retrieved from

Scholz, C. (2010, November 5). 7 questions leaders can ask to build trust. Retrieved from

Ibid. (2010, November 3). Do you have a leadership trust-deficit? Retrieved from

Ibid. (2010, October 8). Leadership communication: 3 tips to improve clarity. Retrieved from

Ibid. (2010, October 6). Leadership clarity: Facing fears and uncertainty. Retrieved from

Simons, R. (1995). Levers of Control. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Smith, N., & Wollan, R., with Zhou, C. (2011). The social media management handbook. Hoboken, NJ:  John Wiley & Sons.

Team Technology (n.d.). Choosing the right team-building exercises. Retrieved from

Trotter, J. (2011, March 21). A game in flames. Retrieved from

Workshop Exercises (2011, March). Team building activities. Retrieved from